Malang – Wikipedia

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MalangMalang CityKota MalangKutha Malang • Javaneseꦏꦸꦛꦩꦭꦁ • Pegonكوڟا مالاڠ‎

Clockwise, from top left: Malang City Hall and Tugu Monument, Badut Temple, Gajayana Stadium, Malang Station and Karangkates Dam

Malang Kuçeçwara (meaning: God shattering the wrong, uphold the correct)

Malang (Asia)Coordinates: 7°58′48″S 112°37′12″E / 7.98000°S 112.62000°ECoordinates: 7°58′48″S 112°37′12″E / 7.98000°S 112.62000°ECountry IndonesiaProvince East JavaSettled760Incorporated (City)April 1, 1914 (age 108) • MayorSutiaji • Vice MayorSofyan Edi Jarwoko • City110.06 km2 (42.49 sq mi) • Urban1,132.7 km2 hotel malang (437.3 sq mi) • Metro2,156.6 km2 (832.7 sq mi)Elevation506 m (1,660 ft) • City843,810 • Density7,700/km2 (20,000/sq mi) • Urban2,795,209 • Urban density2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi) • Metro3,663,691 • Metro density1,700/km2 (4,400/sq mi)Demonym(s)Malangan, Arema[2]Time zoneUTC+7 (IWST)Postal Code

6511x–6514xArea code(+62) 341Vehicle registrationNHDI 0.828 (Very high)AirportAbdul Rachman Saleh

Malang (; Javanese: ꦏꦸꦛꦩꦭꦁ, romanized: Kutha Malang) is a landlocked city in the Indonesian province of East Java. It has a history dating back to the age of Singhasari Kingdom. It is the second most populous city in the province, with a population of 820,043 at the 2010 Census and 843,810 at the 2020 Census.[3] Its metropolitan area is home to 3,663,691 inhabitants in 2010, spread across two cities and 22 districts (21 in Malang Regency and one in Pasuruan Regency).[4] Malang is the third largest city by economy in East Java, after Surabaya and Kediri, with an estimated 2016 GDP at Rp. 44.30 trillion.[5]

The city is well known for its mild climate. During Dutch colonization, it was a popular destination for European residents. Even now, Malang still holds its position as a popular destination for international tourists.[6] Malang keeps various historical relics. This city keeps relics of the Kingdom of Kanjuruhan period until the Dutch period.[7] The existence of Dutch heritage in general is in the form of ancient buildings such as the Kayutangan church and Ijen cathedral which has gothic architecture. Malang also holds various events to preserve its cultural heritage, one of them is Malang Tempo Doeloe Festival. There’s also a lot of historical heritage which has become a landmark like Tugu Malang (Alun-alun Bundar). This city is also well known because of its label as an educational city. It has one of the best universities in Indonesia such as Brawijaya University and Malang State University.[8]

Malang has various ethnic groups and cultures from all over Indonesia and the world. The population of Malang reaches 895,387 people with a majority of Javanese, followed by the Madurese, and Chinese or Peranakan.[9] Malang extended urban area or notable known as Malang Raya, is the second largest in East Java after Gerbangkertosusila (Surabaya Metropolitan Area). From Javanese culture point of view, the majority of Malang people belongs to Arekan Javanese culture.[10]

Malang was spared many of the effects of the Asian financial crisis and since that time it has been marked by steady economic and population growth.[11]Etymology[edit]

The etymology of the name Malang is uncertain. One of the theory said that the name Malang is derived from the words Malangkuçeçwara which means “God has destroyed the false and enforced the right”. The words was taken from an ancient term which mention a legendary temple called Malangkuçeçwara supposedly located near the city Malang. The word Malangkuçeçwara was applied as the motto of the city of Malang. The name “Malang” first appeared on the Pamotoh / Ukirnegara Inscription (1120 Saka / 1198 AD) which was discovered on 11 January 1975 by a Bantaran plantation administrator in Wlingi, Blitar Regency. In the copper inscription, one part is written (with the following translation) as follows.[12]

…taning sakrid Malang-akalihan wacid lawan macu pasabhanira dyah Limpa Makanagran I…

… in the east where hunting around Malangwith wacid and the mancu,Dyah Limpa rice fields namely …

Malang here refers to an eastern of Mount Kawi. Although it is known that the use of Malang has at least been going on since the 12th century, it cannot be ascertained the etymology of its territory.

The first hypothesis refers to the name of a holy building called Malangkuçeçwara (pronounced [malaŋkuʃeʃworo]). The sacred building is referred to in two Balitung King inscriptions from Ancient Mataram, namely the Mantyasih Inscription in 907 AD and the Inscription of 908 AD.[13] Experts still have not obtained an agreement where the building is located. On the one hand, there are a number of experts who say that the Malangkuçeçwara building is located in the Mount Buring area, a mountain that stretches east of Malang where there is one of its peaks named “Malang”.[13] Others on the other hand suspect that the actual location of the sacred building is in the Tumpang area, Malang Regency. In the area, there is a village called Malangsuka, which according to historians comes from the word Malangkuça (pronounced [malankuʃoː]) which is pronounced upside down. This opinion is reinforced by the existence of ancient relics around Tumpang such as Jago Temple and Kidal Temple which is the territory of the Kingdom of Singhasari.[13]

The Malangkuçeçwara name consists of 3 words, namely mala which means falsehood, cheating, falsehood, and evil, angkuça (pronounced [aŋkuʃo] which means to destroy or destroy, and içwara (pronounced [iʃworo]) which means God. Therefore, Malangkuçeçwara means “God has destroyed the vanity”.[14]

The second hypothesis refers to the story of the assault of the Mataram Sultanate forces to Malang in 1614 led by Tumenggung Alap-Alap.[15] According to folklore, there was a conversation between Tumenggung Alap-Alap and one of his assistants regarding the condition of Malang before the attack began. The assistant from Tumenggung Alap-Alap mentioned residents and soldiers from the area as residents who “blocked the halangi” (“Malang” in Javanese) from the arrival of Mataram troops. After the conquest, the Mataram forces named the area of conquest as Malang.[16]History[edit]Early history[edit]

The Malang area in the Pleistocene era was still a deep basin flanked by volcanic activity from mountains such as the Karst Mountains in the South, Kawi, Butak, and Kelud in the West, Anjasmoro, and Arjuno-Welirang complex in the Northeast and North, and the Tengger Mountains Complex in East.[17] The basin has not been inhabited by humans because the condition is still in the form of lava and hot lava flows from the surrounding mountains.[18] Towards the rainy season, the Malang basin is filled with water flowing through the mountain slopes leading to a number of rivers and forming an ancient swamp. The swamps spread to create ancient lakes.

When the ancient lake had not dried up, early human civilization was still in the early to advanced stages of Hunting and Collecting Food. The settlements are still on the slopes of mountains and mountains that surround Malang in the form of natural caves. Therefore, it is understandable that the discovery of artifacts in the paleolithic and mesolithic period is found in mountainous areas, such as on the slopes of Mount Kawi, Arjuno-Welirang, Tengger, Semeru and the Southern Karst Mountains.[19]

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